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As you might have realized, Panini is difficult. His work is not something you can understand by reading it through from beginning to end. Rather, it essentially assumes that you’ve read some of it before you’ve ever started reading.
The Structure of the Ashtadhyayi | Learn Sanskrit Online
We must understand, ashtadyhayi, that the Ashtadhyayi was originally taught orally; students learned the work by heart and could recall any individual rule at will. Today, most people learn the work by reading it, and that creates the sorts of problems and frustrations you might have had if you’ve tried to read the work on your own.
So, what do we do? We must approach the work cyclically: By doing so, we’ll learn about both the concrete realization of Panini’s system and the abstract framework that supports it.
The Ashtadhyayi is a list of paninu. But these rules, too, are lists: These lists have different headings, and these headings describe the behavior of the items they contain.
But the Ashtadhyayi is more complicated than this: In this way, Panini created a brief and immensely dense work. Thus, we have a large arrangement of different rules that we must try to understand.
I’ve listed the rules here from the most concrete to the most abstract. Throughout this series of lessons, I will use the Sanskrit terms. This rule is as basic as it gets. Ashtashyayi important to realize that we take an ordinary word and give it a new meaning. This sort of ashhtadhyayi describes the way that Sanskrit actually behaves. It can describe such pajini as word formation, the application of sandhi, and so on.
Most rules are like this. This sort of rule contradicts paini earlier vidhi rule. Essentially, it contains an exception to an earlier rule. This is useful because the Ashtadhyayi contains zshtadhyayi rules that act on very specific terms. This sort of rule specifies an idea that extends to the rules that follow it. Such a rule sometimes specifies how far it extends, but ashtqdhyayi its extension is clear from context.
This sort of rule doesn’t address other rules: Such a rule tells us how we should read and understand the other rules in the Ashtadhyayi. For illustration’s sake, I’ve created an example. Pwnini example is not perfect, but it should help you see how these rules interact and relate to each other. As you read the list below, try to classify each rule with one of the terms above.
This example also brings up an important point about the structure of the Ashtadhyayi. If you considered rule 4 by itself, you would have no idea what it was trying to say; and a vegetable does not only has a sensible meaning when considered alongside the rule that comes before it.
Likewise, but not turnips is meaningless without a proper context. In the same way, some rules in the Ashtadhyayi are meaningless if separated from the rules above them. One such rule is one syllable long: By itself, this rule means nothing. But when considered with the rules above it, we learn that it represents a vowel with a special property.
The examples in the next lesson are more complex. Coincidentally, they also feature noun endings that we haven’t yet studied. This is pf good place to stop for now. If you came to this lesson from Starting Out, you can click here to return to the review page and continue through the grammar guide. Index Grammar guide Resources Tools. About Contact Preferences Using the Site. Introduction As you might have realized, Panini is difficult. A summary in words The Ashtadhyayi lf a list of rules.
Now, let’s try and understand the different kinds of rules that Panini uses in his work. The various rules I’ve listed asjtadhyayi rules here from the most concrete to the most abstract. A short example For illustration’s sake, I’ve created an example. Now we talk about food. Unless otherwise stated, assume that everything that comes from a plant is food.
A fruit contains seeds, and a vegetable does not. Tomatoes are treated like vegetables. Here is how we should classify the rules: This rule tells us that all of the rules that follow are talking about food. So, a fruit is food, and a vegetable is food as well. This rule tells us how asutadhyayi should classify the things that come from plants. It specifically states an intuitive concept that we should apply to other objects from plants. Although the rule doesn’t say so explicitly, we should understand that it only applies in the context of this list of rules.
This rule defines ashtafhyayi term “fruit” as a food that contains seeds.
This rule defines the term “vegetable” as a food that does not contain seeds. An exception to a previous rule.
Ashtadhyayi of Panini by Srisa Chandra Vasu
We add the property of “vegetable” to the tomato. Thus, a tomato is treated “like” a vegetable. Index Grammar guide Resources Tools Paninni This page was last edited on July 20,