Hispid beetles Brontispa longissima are palmivorous insects (Creighton , Lever , in He et al. /06). The larvae and adults are. The coconut hispid beetle Brontispa longissima (Gestro) was accidentally introduced into Western Samoa in Consequently in several beneficial . PDF | On May 1, , Mario Navasero and others published The Coconut Leaf Beetle, Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Chrysomellidae.

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Brontispa | Hispine Pests of Palms

If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. Cultural Control A surgical method of control has been attempted in the Solomon Islands; this involved cutting out and destroying the central unopened frond which harbours the pest Brown and Green, This procedure must be conducted over a large area at one time to reduce re-infestation from neighbouring palms and must be repeated fairly often to be effective.

Palms which were years old could stand the loss of one leaf every 6 months, but younger palms could not as this caused too great a reduction in growth rate Tothill, However, this method is expensive and will not greatly affect the Brontispa population as a whole unless mature palms are also treated Tothill, Mechanical control of the pest by removing affected heart leaves is laborious and has very little effect Kalshoven, Chemical Control Due to the variable regulations around de- registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any specific chemical control recommendations.

For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources: EU pesticides database www. Neglected palms are more heavily attacked than those kept free from undergrowth Froggatt and O’Connor, ; Maddison, Coconut plantations in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, which were in poor condition due to poor soil conditions, infestations by aleurodids and inadequate maintenance, were more susceptible to attack by B. Severe Brontispa attacks were reported in nearly all regions of south-east Sulawesi in The hispid sometimes occurred together with AleurodicusOryctes and palm weevils, which together killed numerous palms, while other trees were in such poor condition that they did not produce fruit for many years.

The outbreaks continued until between and when the situation greatly improved due to the plants having older, fully developed, more resistant foliage. The effect of the severe infestations was felt for a number of years because growers ceased to maintain their plantations during the outbreak years Kalshoven, In North Sulawesi, the main damage caused by Brontispa occurs on young, year-old palms, which are not yet fruiting.


This infestation may supersede earlier attacks by Plesispa. Progressively smaller numbers of Brontispa are found in year-old trees. When year-old trees start to fruit, traces of previous infestation are still visible, but there is generally no further damage. It is thought that the heart leaves of older trees become firmer and gradually less suitable as a breeding place for the pest and are, therefore, no longer penetrated by the beetles.

Palms grown in poor conditions, which have a less compact heart, are more susceptible to attack Kalshoven, Light attacks result in minor leaf injury, and a slight decrease in fruiting at the axils of the damaged leaves.

Fruit production is significantly reduced if eight or more leaves are destroyed. Under prolonged outbreak conditions, such as those which occurred in South Sulawesi for several years, fruit-shedding takes place, newly-formed leaves remain small, bronitspa trees appear ragged and may ultimately die. Outbreaks of Brontispa occur quite regularly in east Java, especially near Blitar, where about 55, trees were damaged in three districts during the dry season of Brontispa is also a regular pest in Besuka, especially north of Banjuwangi near Giri where the climate is rather dry.

Outbreaks have also been reported from Madura Kalshoven, Brontispa attacks in North Sulawesi were usually less severe than those in the south of the island. Damage was also reported from the Sangihe Islands, longissmia Ceram, on the islands Banggai and Labolo of the Banggai group and on the Aru islands in association with Plesispa. Brontispa additionally occurred in Bali, but was of little significance.

InAdonaria Island, east of Flores, Indonesia, became a focus longissimw Brontispa attacks, from which the pest migrated to Flores in later years causing particular damage to coconuts in valleys under humid conditions. No trees died, but there was loss of yield. The outbreak ended in In extreme cases, damage can completely arrest the development of young palms and may even kill them Brown and Green, Only occasionally are mature palms attacked on a large enough scale in the Solomon Islands to cause serious damage.

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Knowledge Bank home Change location. Go to distribution map Areca catechu betelnut palm. Both adults and larvae damage the leaflets of young unopened fronds. They graze away the leaf surface in streaks, which are typically parallel to the midrib. The narrow feeding scars enlarge to form irregular, lobgissima blotches as the frond opens. The brown areas shrivel and curl, giving the leaf a characteristic scorched, ragged appearance.

Brontisoa areas of the leaflets break off leaving the foliage partially skeletonized and its effective photosynthetic tissue may in extreme cases be reduced to virtually nothing. As the leaflets separate when the fronds expand, the adults move to brontispz younger leaves. They leave narrow chewing marks, which are individually less damaging than larval feeding.


O’Connor proposed that adults cause more damage than larvae due to the longer duration of this stage, but Tothill considered that the larvae were more destructive. Destruction of young leaf spike tissues restricts growth for a long time and heavy attack may cause death. Palms weakened by attack are more susceptible to drought and disease Waterhouse and Norris, The shorter interval between the opening of successive fronds on mature palms, and their bronttispa size, contribute greatly to their relative freedom from attack.

Report of the expert consultation on coconut beetle outbreak in APPPC member countries

A mature palm may be expected to produce a new frond every weeks. In young palms, after lonhissima rapid emergence of the first few seedling leaves, the fronds are produced less frequently and over the first years of its life a young palm will, on average, produce a new frond only once in every weeks; under adverse conditions the interval may exceed 8 weeks.

Thus, on a young palm there is never more than one frond vulnerable to attack at any one time, and there is usually an interval between the opening of consecutive fronds when there is not one at a vulnerable stage. This results in all immigrant beetles becoming concentrated on those palms which do have a vulnerable frond, and the relatively small size of the fronds renders the damage more devastating.

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The fronds are larger in mature palms and there may be more than one infested frond at any one time; so that, although the number of beetles may be greater, there is less damage.

The rate of frond production gradually speeds up after the palm is about 5 years old, and, by the time it is years old, the palm will be producing new fronds at the normal interval of bfontispa every weeks. It is significant that, at this age, healthy, vigorous palms achieve relative immunity to severe beetle attack. Brontispa attacks palms of all ages, although it is most damaging to young palms in nurseries and for the first years after planting out in the field, especially in dry areas.