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These patients typically have nexaavr beyond a localized small lesion, which is usually defined as a T2 lesion. They often have fairly advanced disease, including macrovascular invasion and extrahepatic spread, but they typically do not have very impaired liver function, as evidenced by having Child-Pugh C cirrhosis. Therefore, a fairly wide group of patients can potentially benefit from sorafenib therapy. Other gula who may benefit from sorafenib therapy include those who have relatively early disease but are not candidates for liver transplantation, ablation, or resection.

These double-blind trials randomly assigned patients to either sorafenib or placebo. The primary endpoint in both trials was survival, and additional endpoints included time to radiologic progression and time to symptomatic progression. Both trials reported improved survival in the sorafenib group over the placebo group, confirming the primary endpoint. In fact, the SHARP study was stopped early based on evidence that the sorafenib arm had increased survival at the time of interim analysis.

Another interesting endpoint was the almost doubling of the time to radiologic progression in the SHARP trial. The patients who were enrolled in the AP trial experienced more adverse events in general.

The reason for this was not entirely clear, although one possibility was that these patients tended to have more advanced disease and, therefore, were potentially more susceptible to adverse events nexqvar general.

However, the efficacy of sorafenib was essentially equivalent in both trials. PG There have been a number of single-center and multicenter trials looking at combination therapy of sorafenib with various interventions, including transarterial chemoembolization and radioembolization.

The Role of Sorafenib in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Several studies have also looked at sorafenib with other chemotherapeutic agents, including bevacizumab Avastin, Genentech. The overall assessment of these studies is that they unfortunately have had significant problems with study design or conduct. One example is the SPACE Sorafenib or Placebo in Combination With Transarterial Chemoembolization for Intermediate-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma trial, which was a large multicenter study that examined whether the combination of sorafenib and transarterial chemoembolization improved survival compared with sorafenib alone.

This trial had significant heterogeneity in the way that transarterial chemoembolization procedures were performed, as well as in the frequency of these procedures and the intervals between them. This resulted in a data set that was somewhat difficult to interpret.

The final conclusion was that the addition of sorafenib in the study population did not seem to increase survival. Combination treatment did, however, lead to an increase in time to radiologic progression and was safe and well tolerated compared with transarterial chemoembolization alone. Likewise, the data available thus far do not support the combination of 2 chemotherapeutic agents to treat unresectable HCC.

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Nevertheless, I think that further investigation is required to definitively determine the benefit of combination therapy or the lack thereof. Several interesting studies on this topic will be reporting results soon, including a study on the combination of sorafenib and yttrium radioembolization.

The results are eagerly awaited. PG The impact of dose nexavxr has not been explored in great detail in the setting of sorafenib randomized clinical trials.

Based on GIDEON data, it appears that dose modification is quite common in real life, and there does not appear to be a dramatic change in the efficacy of the drug when patients receive lower doses over the course of therapy, such as a reduction from to mg daily. There also does not appear to be a significant prescriber trend toward re-escalating the dose of sorafenib once the underlying cause of the dose reduction, usually a significant adverse event, is addressed.

Therefore, it is somewhat unclear whether dose reduction by itself reduces the efficacy of sorafenib or whether patients can take a lower dose and achieve the same jexavar benefit as with the full mg per day dose. I think that the practical standard neexavar now is to dose-reduce patients as appropriate to address adverse events in a timely manner and attempt to re-escalate the dose if the adverse event is addressed fully and effectively.

PG Dose re-escalation is an issue that has not received much focus in sorafenib-treated patients. One of the problems with re-escalation is that it occurs in the context of a patient who has had his or her dose reduced because of a significant adverse event, usually a hand-foot skin reaction.

We know that if a physician reduces the dose of sorafenib, treats the hand-foot skin reaction effectively, and then re-escalates the dose—or bulx the physician completely stops sorafenib therapy, re-introduces the drug at a lower dose, and then gradually increases the dose as tolerated—many patients will tolerate treatment quite well. However, there is often both patient and physician reluctance to do this, and it is an option that prescribers should probably try to pursue more aggressively.

After all, the majority of the benefits generated in the AP and SHARP trials were with the full mg twice a day dose; therefore, we should try to come close to that dose in clinical practice. PG The most common adverse events associated with sorafenib are hand-foot skin reactions, diarrhea, and fatigue.

Other adverse events include asymptomatic hypophosphatemia or hyperamylasemia. Patients also may experience adverse events commonly associated with liver disease, such as elevation of liver enzymes and cytopenias.

Some of these adverse events may be a byproduct of treatment, but most of them are related to underlying liver disease. PG Hand-foot skin reactions, which generally occur in the first 4 weeks of therapy, are managed according to a detailed symptom-driven algorithm.

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Depending on the grade of the reaction, the patient may continue with sorafenib therapy while starting treatment for the reaction, which would usually include the application of a high-concentration urea cream, avoidance of repetitive movements and temperature extremes, and waiting to see whether these interventions help the condition.

The preferred approach for managing up to a grade 1 skin reaction is to avoid dose reduction, but this is usually necessary for grade 2 reactions.

For patients with a grade 3 or greater hand-foot skin reaction, it is usually necessary to hold sorafenib, in addition to implementing all of the interventions mentioned earlier. The physician could certainly rechallenge patients who develop grade 3 reactions with sorafenib because many of them will be able to continue therapy without recurrence of the same adverse events.

I am, however, aware that some providers do monitor the phosphate level and treat it if low bulw to muscle risk and cardiomyopathy as well as fatigue. PG If patients experience progression of disease and no longer appear to derive clinical benefit from sorafenib therapy, then other options could be considered, including, if appropriate, local-regional therapy with transarterial chemoembolization or radioembolization.

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In certain situations, clinical trials for second-line agents would be reasonable to consider; I have referred patients whose disease has failed to respond to sorafenib to such trials.

PG We are still waiting for more data regarding combination therapy with sorafenib and either a local-regional intervention or another chemotherapeutic agent. There are several interesting ongoing studies on combination therapy with sorafenib, for example, the previously mentioned STOP-HCC study. There are also a number of other systemic agents that are currently being tested, including agents that work through other mechanisms. Some of these agents may have a component of angiogenesis, while others may work through pro-oncogenic pathways.

For example, lenvatinib Lenvima, Eisai is currently undergoing a phase 3 study in which it is being tested as first-line therapy compared with sorafenib. Results from many of these studies should be released in the next 6 months, at which time we will hopefully have clarity as to whether additional options are available aside from sorafenib.

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Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Open in a separate window. Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Management of hepatocellular carcinoma: Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients in the Asia-Pacific region with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: Sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. Phase II trial of sorafenib combined with concurrent transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting nexabar for hepatocellular carcinoma. Support Center Support Center. Please review our privacy policy.