KUSHTETUTA E SHQIPERISE PDF

Project funded by the European Union. CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA. KUSHTETUTA E REPUBLIKËS SË SHQIPËRISË. Kushtetuese, të cilët ndër vite kanë kontribuar me punën dhe veprimtarinë e tyre, shpall Shqipërinë Republikë Popullore dhe hyn në fuqi kushtetuta e re, e cila. Kushtetuta E Shqiperise. 28 likes. Book. Kushtetuta E Shqiperise. Privacy · Terms. About. Kushtetuta E Shqiperise. Book. 28 people like this topic. Want to like.

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Throughout this period, the country had a reputation for its Marxist-Leninist style of state administration influenced by Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour of Albania and for policies stressing national unity and self-reliance. Travel and visa restrictions made Albania one of the most difficult countries to visit or from which to travel. Init declared itself the world’s first atheist state. But after the end of its communist regime inthe practice of religion slowly increased.

The first multi-party elections in Socialist Albania took place on 31 March — the Communists gained a majority in an interim government and the first parliamentary elections were held on 22 March The government, like the LNC, was dominated by the two-year-old Communist Party of Albania, and the party’s first secretary, Enver Hoxhabecame Albania’s prime minister.

King Zog I was barred from ever returning to Albania, though the country nominally remained a monarchy. From the start, the LNC government was an undisguised Communist regime.

In the other countries in what became the Soviet bloc, the Communists were at least nominally part of coalition governments for a few years before taking complete control and establishing full-fledged Communist states. Those spared were imprisoned for years in work camps and jails and later settled on state farms built on reclaimed marshlands. In Decemberthe provisional government adopted laws allowing the state to regulate foreign and domestic trade, commercial enterprises, and the few industries the country possessed.

The laws sanctioned confiscation of property belonging to political exiles and “enemies of the people. In Augustthe provisional government adopted the first sweeping agricultural reforms in Albania’s history.

The country’s largest landowners, who controlled close to a third of Albania’s arable land, had frustrated all agricultural reform proposals before the war. The communists’ reforms were aimed at squeezing large landowners out of business, winning peasant support, and increasing farm output to avert famine. The government annulled outstanding agricultural debts, granted peasants access to inexpensive water for irrigationand nationalized forest and pastureland. Under the Agrarian Reform Law, which redistributed about half of Albania’s arable land, the government confiscated property belonging to absentee landlords and people not dependent on agriculture for a living.

The few peasants with agricultural machinery were permitted to keep up to 40 hectares 99 acres of land. Landholdings of religious institutions and peasants without agricultural machinery were limited to 20 hectares 49 acres.

Finally, landless peasants and peasants with tiny landholdings were given up to 5 hectares 12 acresalthough they had to pay nominal compensation. In DecemberAlbanians elected a new People’s Assemblybut voters were presented with a single list from the Communist-dominated Democratic Front previously the National Liberation Movement.

The assembly convened in January Its first act was to formally abolish the monarchy and to declare Albania a “people’s republic.

Kryeministri i Shqipërisë – Wikipedia

After months of angry debate, the assembly kushtetita a constitution that mirrored the Yugoslav and Soviet constitutions.

A couple of months later, the assembly members chose a new government, which was emblematic of Hoxha’s continuing consolidation of power: Hoxha became simultaneously prime minister, foreign ministerdefense ministerand the army’s commander in chief. Xoxe remained both internal affairs minister and the party’s organizational secretary.

In late and earlyXoxe and other party hard-liners purged moderates who had pressed for close contacts with the West, a modicum of political pluralism, and a delay in the introduction of strict communist economic measures until Albania’s economy had more time to develop. Hoxha remained in control despite the fact kushtettua he had once advocated restoring relations with Italy and even allowing Shhqiperise to study in Italy.

The government took major steps to introduce kushteutta Stalinist-style kusjtetuta planned economy in Planners at the newly founded Economic Planning Commission emphasized industrial development and in the government introduced the Soviet cost-accounting system. Until Yugoslavia ‘s expulsion from the Cominform inAlbania was effectively a Yugoslav satellite. In repudiating the Albanian internal Mukaj agreement suqiperise pressure from the Yugoslavs, Albania’s communists had given up on their demands for a Yugoslav cession of Kosovo to Albania after the war.

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In Januarythe two governments signed a treaty establishing Kosovo as a Yugoslav autonomous province. Shortly thereafter, Yugoslavia became the first country to recognize Albania’s provisional government.

In JulyYugoslavia and Albania signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation that was quickly followed by a series of technical and economic agreements laying the groundwork shqiprise integrating the Albanian and Yugoslav economies.

The pacts provided for coordinating the economic plans of both states, standardizing their monetary systems, and creating a common pricing system and a customs union. So close was the Yugoslav-Albanian relationship that Serbo-Croatian became a required subject in Albanian high schools.

Yugoslav advisers poured into Albania’s government offices and its army headquarters.

Tirana was desperate for outside aid, and about 20, tons of Yugoslav grain helped stave off famine. Joint Albanian—Yugoslav companies were created for mining, railroad construction, the production of petroleum and electricity, and international trade. The Yugoslavs also bolstered the Albanian economy by paying three times the international price for Albanian copper and other materials. Relations between Albania and Yugoslavia declined, however, when the Albanians began complaining that the Yugoslavs were paying too little for Albanian raw materials and exploiting Albania through the joint stock companies.

In addition, the Albanians sought investment funds to develop light industries and an oil refinery, while the Yugoslavs wanted the Albanians to concentrate on agriculture and raw-material extraction. The head of Albania’s Economic Planning Commission, and Hoxha’s right-hand man, [7] Nako Spirubecame the leading critic of Yugoslavia’s efforts to exert economic control over Albania. Tito distrusted the intellectuals Hoxha and his allies of the Albanian party and, through Xoxe and his loyalists, attempted to unseat them.

In May, Tirana announced the arrest, trial, and conviction of nine People’s Assembly members, all known for opposing Yugoslavia, on charges of antistate activities. A month later, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia’s Central Committee accused Hoxha of following “independent” policies and turning the Albanian people against Yugoslavia. This was the closest Hoxha came from being removed from power. A year later, Yugoslavia’s credits accounted for nearly half of the state budget. Relations worsened in the fall, however, when Spiru’s commission developed an economic plan that stressed self-sufficiency, light industry, and agriculture.

The Yugoslavs complained bitterly. Subsequently, at a November meeting of the Albanian Economic Central Committee, Spiru came under intense criticism, spearheaded by Xoxe. Failing to win support from anyone within the party he was effectively a fall guy for Hoxha he committed suicide the very next day. The insignificance of Albania’s standing in the communist world was clearly highlighted when the emerging East European nations did not invite the Albanian party to the September founding meeting of the Cominform.

Rather, Yugoslavia represented Albania at Cominform meetings. Although the Soviet Union gave Albania a pledge to build textile and sugar mills and other factories and to provide Albania agricultural and industrial machinery, Joseph Stalin told Milovan Djilasat the time a high-ranking member of Yugoslavia’s communist hierarchy, that Yugoslavia should “swallow” Albania.

The pro-Yugoslav faction wielded decisive political power in Albania well into At a party plenum in February and March, the communist leadership voted to merge the Albanian and Yugoslav economies and militaries.

Hoxha even denounced Spiru for attempting to ruin Albanian-Yugoslav relations. During a party Political Bureau Politburo meeting a month later, Xoxe proposed appealing to Belgrade to admit Albania as a seventh Yugoslav republic. When the Cominform expelled Yugoslavia on 28 June, however, Albania made a rapid about-face in its policy toward Yugoslavia.

Three days later, Tirana gave the Yugoslav advisers in Albania 48 hours to leave the country, rescinded all bilateral economic agreements with its neighbor, and launched a virulent anti-Yugoslav propaganda blitz that transformed Stalin into an Albanian national hero, Hoxha into a warrior against foreign aggression, and Tito into an imperialist monster.

Albania entered an orbit around the Soviet Union, and in September Moscow stepped in to compensate for Albania’s loss of Yugoslav aid. The shift proved to be a boon for Albania because Moscow had far more to offer than hard-strapped Belgrade. The fact that the Soviet Union had no common border with Albania also appealed to the Albanian regime because it made it more difficult for Moscow to exert pressure on Tirana. Hoxha had Xoxe sacked as internal affairs minister in October, replacing him with Mehmet Shehu.

After a secret trial in MayXoxe was executed. The subsequent anti-Titoist purges in Albania brought the liquidation of 14 members of the party’s 31 person Central Committee and 32 of the People’s Assembly deputies. Yugoslavia responded with a propaganda counterattack, canceled its treaty of friendship with Albania, and in withdrew its diplomatic mission from Tirana. Albania’s relations with the West soured after the Communist regime’s refusal to allow free elections in December Albania restricted the movement of United States and British personnel in the country, charging that they had instigated anti-Communist uprisings in the northern mountains.

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The Albanian regime feared that the United States and Britain, which were supporting anti-Communist forces in the ongoing civil war in Greecewould back Greek demands for territory in southern Albania ; and anxieties grew in July when a United States Senate resolution backed the Greek demands. A major incident between Albania and Britain erupted in after Tirana claimed jurisdiction over the channel between the Albanian mainland and the Greek island of Corfu.

Britain challenged Albania by sailing four destroyers into the channel. Two of the ships struck mines on 22 Octoberand 44 crew members died. Britain complained to the UN and the International Court of Justice which, in its first case ever, ruled against Tirana. After the United States and the United Kingdom began implementing an elaborate covert plan to overthrow Albania’s Communist regime by backing anti-Communist and royalist forces within the country.

By the United States and British intelligence organizations were working with King Zog and the mountainmen of his personal guard. Guerrilla units entered Albania in andbut Albanian security forces killed or captured all of them. Kim Philbya Soviet double agent working as a liaison officer between the British intelligence service and the United States Central Intelligence Agency, had leaked details of the infiltration plan to Moscow, and the security breach claimed the lives of about infiltrators.

Following a wave of subversive activity, including the failed infiltration and the March bombing of the Soviet embassy in Tirana, the Albanian regime implemented harsh internal security measures. In Septemberthe assembly enacted a penal code that required the death penalty for anyone over eleven years old who was found guilty of conspiring against the state, damaging state property, or committing economic sabotage.

Political executions were common and between 5, and 25, people were killed in total under the period of the Communist regime. Albania became dependent on Soviet aid and know-how after it broke with Yugoslavia in In FebruaryAlbania gained membership in the communist bloc ‘s organization for coordinating economic planningthe Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Comecon.

Soviet and East European technical advisers took up residence in Albania, and the Soviet Union also sent Albania military advisers and built a submarine installation on Sazan Island. After the Soviet-Yugoslav split, Albania and Bulgaria remained the only countries that the Soviet Union could use to funnel war material to the communists fighting in Greece.

Constitutional Court of Albania

What little strategic value Albania offered the Soviet Union, however, gradually shrank as nuclear-arms technology developed. Anxious to pay homage to StalinAlbania’s rulers implemented elements of the Stalinist economic system. In Albania adopted the basic elements of the Soviet fiscal system, under which state enterprises paid direct contributions to the treasury from their profits and kept only a share authorized for self-financed investments and other purposes.

In the Albanian government launched its first five-year plan, which emphasized exploiting the country’s oilchromitecoppernickelasphaltand coal resources; expanding electricity production and the power grid; increasing agricultural output ; and improving transportation.

The government began a program of rapid industrialization after the APL’s Second Party Congress and a campaign of forced collectivization of farmland in Soviet-Albanian relations remained warm during the last years of Stalin’s life, although Albania was an economic liability for the Soviet Union.

Albania conducted all its foreign trade with Soviet European countries in, and — and over half its trade with the Soviet Union itself.

Together with its satellites, the Soviet Union underwrote shortfalls in Albania’s balance-of-payments with long-term grants. Although far behind Western practice, health care and education improved dramatically for Albania’s 1.

The number of Albanian doctors increased by a third to about early in the decade although the doctor-patient ratio remained unacceptable by most [ quantify ] standardsand the state opened new medical-training facilities.

The number of hospital beds rose from 1, in to about 5, in