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Possibility may have varying degrees (Budai ), such as hypothetical solutions (It can be .. Budai, László. Élő angol nyelvtan. Săndulescu– Lidia Vianu (eds), Gramatica limbii engleze [English Grammar], vol. 4, – Budai, László. Gramatica engleză. Teorie şi exerciţii. Bucureşti: Teora. Chiţoran, D., Panovf, I., Poenaru, I. English Grammar. Exercises. Bucureşti. (curs practic de limba engleză pentru învăţământul la distanţă). Anul II În ceea ce priveşte întrebările în limba engleză, Budai, László, Gramatica engleză.

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Post on Apr views. A History is the first comprehensive study of the Romanian people by a single author to be published in English since It was written without the fear of graatica sorship and therefore earns the reader’s trust with its straightforward tone, balanced views, and systematic approach to its subject. By con trast, the several multi-authored official his tories of Romania found in larger research libraries in the United States are rendered sus pect, particularly in their treatment of modern times and precisely because of their “official” stamp of approval.

Georgescu focuses on the Romanian people, examining not only ethnic communities from pre-Roman times to the present but also social structures, economics, and political institu tions of the principalities inhabited by the Romanians at various stages of their historical development.

Originally published in Romanian inthe text has been updated in an epilogue written by series editor Matei Calinescu and Vladimir Tismaneanu that describes events of the past decade, especially the revolution that deposed Ceausescu, and the sweeping changes now enveloping Eastern Europe.

De la origini pina in zilele noastre. Copyright by the Ohio State University Press. Romanian literature and thought in translation series Translation of: Istoria romanilor de la origini pina englezaa zilele noastre. Includes bibliographical references p. Printed in the U.

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Rise of a People. The Middle Ages c. The Romanians of Transylvania. The International Status of the Principalities. Byzantium after Byzantium The Cultural Setting.

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Literature, Ideas, and the Arts. Economy and Social Life. The Habsburgs in Transylvania. The Age of Revolutions. Enlightenment and Nationalism Between East and West. From Crafts to Large Industry. Politics, Institutions, and the Power Structure. Political Life Domestic Policy. National Culture 1J2 Civilization.

The National Legionary State. Foreign Policy and the Beginnings of Liberalization. The Rise of Neo-Stalinism Detente. The Cult of Personality and Dynastic Socialism. Romania in the MidsEconomic Performance. The Standard of Living. The Role of the Ruling Class. Academia Romano-Americana, for publication in English by the Ohio State University Press at the time of his unexpected and untimely death on 13 Novemberat the age of Before his sudden fatal illness, he had all but completed the work and had read and corrected most of the English translation.

Unfortunately he did not live to rewrite chapter 6, “Communism in Romania. Georgescu made a few minor changes, mostly cuts, during the last months of his life. To update the final section devoted to the recent history of Romania, Georgescu thought of adding a new subchapter. That subchapter was going to be based, he told me, on an essay, “Romania in the Mids,” conceived and written independently.

In order to represent Georgescu’s views about events that occurred in Romania and eastern Europe be tween andthe year of his death, “Romania in the Mid s” has been included as chapter 7 of the present volume. This essay, whose final editing was done by his friend and collaborator Vla dimir Socor, differs from the rest of the book in its more journalistic perspective and tone. Its views are also now dated in light of the anti-Communist revolutions in eastern Europe, the collapse of the Ceauescu regime in Romania, and the disintegration of the Romanian Communist Party as a political organization on 22 December The December anti-Ceauescu and, more profoundly, antiCommunist popular uprising, the drama of the Romanian revolution, and its aftermath constitute a major turning point in the life of that country.

A book on the history of the Romanians published in the s but making no mention of these events would certainly disappoint the interested general reader, to whom Georgescu’s volume is in large part addressed.

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To give this reader a sense of the crucial importance of these recent eventsthe sense of the ending of a dark period in the history of the Romanian nation and of a particularly difficult but hopeful newXllPREFACEbeginningI have decided to add to the volume an epilogue, which I wrote in collaboration with Vladimir Tismaneanu, of the University of Maryland: One example is the Romanian term cdrturar, used with some frequency in the original, and meaning “bookman, studious and learned man, man of learning, scholar.

Alexandra Bley-Vroman’s translation has generally followed the origi nal closely, but when it seemed to me to help the exposition or to clarify a certain idea for an English-speaking reader, I have recast a sentence here and there or changed a word. The reader should note that dates are given in new style, with the exception of important dates and na tional holidays, such as 24 January the unification of the prin cipalities10 May the arrival of Prince Caroland 10 May the coronation of Carol I as king of Romania.

I have also re checked the notes and the bibliographic references. And naturally, I have corrected anything that seemed to be a mere slip, in the original or in the translation. But I have refrained from interfering with any substantive matters. The volume testifies to the qualities of depth, lucidity, and originality of Vlad Georgescu’s historical insight. Written tightly and in a sustained reflexive mode, The Romanians: A History is the first overall history of the Romanian people by a single author to be published in English since the masterly synthesis of R.

Seton-Watson ; reprinted A couple of multiauthor official histories of Romania, sponsored by the former Communist government of Nicolae Ceauescu, have been translated into English over the last decades and can be found in the larger research libraries in the United States, the United Kingdom, and other English-speaking countries.

But the official stamp of approval, the nihil obstat of the ideological censor, renders them suspect, partic ularly in their treatment of the modern period they invariably end with sycophantic tributes to the “greatness” of Nicolae Ceauescu’s rule. Vlad Georgescu’s The Romanians: A History, written without fear of censorship, immediately wins the reader’s trust by its remarkably straightforward tone, by its calm, balanced, and thoughtful views, byPREFACEXlllits admirable evenhandedness, and perhaps by the greatest quality that emerges from its pagesits noble serenity.

The reader of the volume will notice a change, if not in the general approach, in the focus on certain details, and more specifically on the personal characteristics of individual political leaders, as Georgescu’s history gets closer to the present. For the more distant past, the author uses skillfully the various methodologies associated with the “new his tory,” including what has been called “cliometries,” or quantitative his tory.

In such a broad view of history including the study of longerterm trends in the demography and the economic, institutional, and cultural life of an area or laxzlothere is little place for the traditional “narrative history” of political events, reigns, spectacular battles, and so on.

Typically, Georgescu uses the available statistical data to describe social structures, institutions, trades and crafts, and the lifestyles of the various classes and professions at length, but is very concise when writ ing about such traditional heroes of Romanian historiography as Mircea the Old, Stephen the Great, or Michael the Brave the combined direct references to their biographies as major historical characters do not exceed, I would say, a couple of pages.

The author’s notion of the role of personality in historyhis meth odology remaining basically the samebecomes more comprehensive, however, when hramatica starts to deal with contemporary matters. Budau and more narrative details political, not personal, it is true are brought into the focus of historical grsmatica in the chapters devoted laszlp the two Stalinist leaders of Romania sinceGheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej and Nicolae Ceauescu. I am afraid that this trend toward a more narrative mode of presentation and narratives imply events and characters may have been exaggerated in the epilogue, which is unabashedly narrative as it looks from close range and in some detail at what happened in a very short period of time, the tumultuous Romanian revolution 16 25 December and its immediate aftermath up to 15 May I wonder how Georgescu would have written about the Romanian rev olution and how he would have dealt with the problem of a suddenly and tremendously accelerated historical time after the eerily empty, almost “posthistorical” last two decades of the Ceauescu period.

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But I am persuaded that he would have approved of the general orientation of the epilogue as Vladimir Tismaneanu and I wrote it. Many people have generously contributed their time and competence in helping complete the manuscript for publication. Andrei Bre zianu, Dr. Alice Zwoelfer, and in particular Mrs. Mary Georgescu, deserve the gratitude of the publisher and the editor.

Traces of human life appeared with the dawn of history in the territory that is now Romania: Neanderthals appeared aroundB. They used caves and kindled their own fires as well as taking advantage of naturally bueai ones.

4 BIBLIOGRAFIA NAŢIONALĂ ROMÂNĂ

Objects found in caves show that the Neanderthals were rather gatherers than hunters and had tools and weapons more advanced than their predecessors’. This is the moment when races began to form, the inhabitants of what is now Romania belonging to the Cro-Magnon branch. The Cro-Magnons, whose tools and weapons are distributed through out Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania, used tools to produce tools.

They modified the old stonecutting technology, introducing pressureflaking; they developed the spearhead, different varieties of scraper, and the flake tool. Cro-Magnon culture was undoubtedly very much affected when, toward the end of the Upper Paleolithic, climatic change led to the disappearance or migration to the north of certain animals, including the mammoth, the cave lion, the Siberian rhinoceros, and the reindeer.

The remaining game was eventually reduced to most of the species found in Romania today: Neolithic civilization, of which there is considerable archaeological evidence throughout Romania, came with the influx from the south of2EARLY TIMESa new, heterogeneous people of preponderantly Mediterranean type, mixing proto-European, Cro-Magnon components with brachycephalic aspects similar to the Anatolian type.

As in the rest of Europe, this people introduced polishing, a new way of working stone, bone, and horn, which made it possible to use other stones besides flint. This sedentary people, whose members lived in fortified settlements of stick or mud huts, had discovered the advantages of cultivating plants the earliest archaeological evidence of agriculture in Romania dates from the sixth millennium B.

They domesticated animals cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs, but not horses and invented spinning, weaving, and pottery, developments that radically altered human life. Of the Neo lithic cultures in Romania, the best known is certainly the Cucuteni, which spread through southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia and Muntenia and flourished from the end of the fourth millennium until around B.

Cucuteni culture produced medio cre tools, but is notable for its polychrome painted pottery and for the anthropomorphic figurines, perhaps dedicated to a fertility cult, dis covered at many sites. Settlements could be as large as six hectares.

At the beginning of the second millennium B. As the old Neolithic tribes intermixed with nomadic Indo-European peoples who came from the steppe north of the Black Sea a new people arose, and most scholars agree that the ethnic and linguistic restructuring brought about by the arrival of the Indo-Europeans finally led to the formation of the Thracian tribes. Although native copper had been known and used as early as the Neolithic period, the introduction of bronze metallurgy, a technology that probably came from the Mesopotamian region by way of Aegean civilization, allowed the Bronze Age inhabitants of Romania to exploit the ore from Transylvania, Oltenia, and Dobrudja fully.

Bronze Age people generally preferred animal husbandry to agriculture, and they created a largely pastoral civilization very different from that of the Romanian Neolithic.

Their large and fortified settlements have yielded a rich store of axesboth tools and weaponsas well as daggers and swords, suggesting that the civilization had a pronounced warlike char acter, which probably intensified as the first tribes appeared. The Bronze Age, the millennium extending from about to B. C; the technology for working the ore was probably brought from Anatolia and the Near East.

In the seventh century B. Greek settlers appeared on the coast of Dobrudja, found ing Histria B.

In these towns the natives came in contact with the more highly developed Greek world. In the sixth cen tury B.